AP World History
Test #11: Study Guide
PART I — Key Terms to Define
Directions: The following terms are ones you absolutely, positively have to know. Define each one on your own sheet of paper. Make sure your definitions are accurate and complete. Some definitions may come out to be a sentence long: others may consist of more than a sentence. Use the handout “Key Terms” given to you at the beginning of the year to define each term accurately. (20 pts. @ 5 pts. each)
PART II — Focus Questions
Directions: You must know the answer to each of the following questions. Write as much as you need to in order to answer each question thoroughly. However, be aware that many of these questions (perhaps all of them) must be answered in at least one paragraph. Use your test #11 outline to help you respond (60 pts. @ 6 pts. each)
Compare old imperialism (1500— 1750) with the New Imperialism (1870— 1914).
What were the motives behind the New Imperialism? How was technology a factor that encouraged European expansion after 1870?
Describe Europeans’ scramble for Africa. What were the consequences of the New Imperialism in Africa?
Discuss British imperialism in India after 1870. What were the consequences of British rule in India?
Discuss British imperialism in China. What were the consequences of European influence in China?
How was the Japanese response to imperialism different from the Chinese response?
Discuss British and American imperialism in Latin America between 1870 and 1914.
Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia (including India, China, and Japan), and Latin America.
Compare the roles of women in Europe, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE.
Compare industrialization in Europe and Japan.
PART III — Review Questions
Directions: You must know the answer to each of the following questions. Write as much as you need to in order to answer each question thoroughly. Use your test #11 outline and your class notes to help you respond .(20 pts. @ 3 pts. each)
What were the motives for the “New” Imperialism that lasted from 1870-1914?
What new technologies made the scramble for Africa and European conquest of Asia possible after 1870?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact Africa between 1870 and 1914?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact India between 1800 and 1914?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact China between 1800 and 1914?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact Japan between 1870 and 1914?
Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE.
Key Content Review:Test #11
OLD IMPERIALISM VS. THE NEW IMPERIALISM
A. OLD IMPERIALISM
European powers had practiced a form of imperialism between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this period, Portugal, the Dutch Republic, and England built trading-post empires along the coasts of Africa, India, and Indonesia.
The New World was a notable exception to this pattern. Spain established an enormous empire in Central and South America while England colonized the east coast of North America.
B. NEW IMPERIALISM
Beginning in 1870, European nations exercised increasing economic and political control over Africa and Asia. No longer content to trade with other peoples, European nations now aimed to directly rule vast regions of the world.
The imperialist powers seized control over some areas such as German East Africa and French Indo-China. In other areas, they established protectorates where the dependent country had its own government but was still subject to the authority of the imperial power. And finally, the great powers established spheres of influence over large parts of China.
THE NEW IMPERIALISM
A. MOTIVES FOR THE NEW IMPERIALISM
Industrialists searched for new sources of raw materials and new markets for their manufactured goods.
Militarists and nationalists sought power and prestige.
Social Darwinists believed that strong nations had a natural right to dominate weaker peoples. (They took the idea of “survival of the fittest” and began to apply it to peoples and nations. Naturally, Europeans felt that they were the most “fit” because of their vast wealth, technology, etc.)
Missionaries believed that Europeans had a duty to undertake a “civilizing mission” to bring Christianity and the blessings of advanced technology to less fortunate people.
*In short, the motives behind the New Imperialism after 1870 were similar to the motives behind European exploration after 1450 and can be summed up in three words: God, Glory, and Gold.
B. TECHNOLOGY AS A FACTOR THAT ENCOURAGED EUROPEAN EXPANSION AFTER 1870
The Industrial Revolution provided technological innovations that made the New Imperialism possible.
Steamships, the Suez Canal, and submarine cables gave European forces greater mobility and better communication than Africans, Asians, or Latin Americans. The discovery that quinine could be used to prevent malaria allowed Europeans to enter Africa in large numbers for the first time.
3. The invention of the breech-loading rifle, smokeless powder, and the machine gun gave Europeans made colonial conquests easier than ever before.
C. THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
The most aggressive example of the New Imperialism took place in Africa
New medicine, such as quinine, and
The so-called “Scramble for Africa” became so frenetic and rapacious that Otto von Bismark (the German chancellor) called for an international conference in Berlin. The 14 nations that attended the 1885 Berlin Conference established rules for dividing Africa.
Led by Great Britain, France, and Germany, the European powers successfully partitioned (divided) almost the entire continent of Africa. Only Liberia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) remained independent.
D. CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEW IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures
Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamship) and new medicine (such as quinine) to Africa
Intensified European rivalries
E. IMPERIALISM IN INDIA BEFORE 1850
As the Mughal Empire declined, the British made alliances with regional princes in order to strengthen their access to trade.
The British East India Company (EIC) established trading bases in port cities and hired Indian troops, known as Sepoys, to protect them.
As British influence in India increased, the British focused on creating a more powerful, efficient government in India.
British reforms in India included subduing the regional princes, establishing private land ownership (so that the government could more easily collect tax money), giving freer reign to Christian missionaries, and expanding agricultural production.
F. THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857
British economic influence benefited Indian elites and created some jobs, but it also led to greater oppression of the poor and the destruction of India’s cotton textile industry. (Before the arrival of the British, India had been the world’s leading exporter of hand-woven cotton cloth. However, India’s textile industry could not compete with the cheaper machine-made cotton textiles of British factories. Eventually, India grew cotton and exported it to Britain where it could be manufactured into cloth.)
There was increasing discontent with British rule.
Some of those discontented were the Sepoys. The Sepoys resented British efforts to have them go and fight overseas. They also were angered by British attempts to Christianize them (most of them were Hindu or Muslim) and by rumors that the bullet cartridges they were using in their rifles were being greased with pig and/or cow fat. (Remember that Muslims do not eat pork because they consider pigs to be unclean and Hindus do not eat beef because they consider cows to be sacred.)
The Sepoys rebelled in 1857.
The rebellion was eventually put down by the British and its leaders were executed, but it proved to be a turning point in the history of modern India.
G. CONSEQUENCES OF THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857
Britain ended the rule of the East India Company in India.
Queen Victoria declared that all Indians would be guaranteed equal protection of the law and the freedom to practice their religions and social customs.
A viceroy (governor) was appointed by the queen to oversee affairs in India.
The Indian National Congress (INC), which was made up of Indian nationalists, began to push for additional reforms in India (such as spending more governmental funds to help the poor) and ultimately hoped to achieve independence. However, independence for India would not come until after World War II, in 1947.
H. CONSEQUENCES OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA
Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures (including India’s textile industry).
Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to India.
I. IMPERIALISM IN CHINA
Europeans (especially the British) wanted to increase their trade with China. However, the Qing Dynasty only permitted Europeans access to one port city, Canton, in eastern China.
The British were buying lots of goods from China (i.e. silk, porcelain, and Tea), but they were not selling much of anything to the Chinese.
The British began to sell opium to the Chinese. Many Chinese became hooked on the drug.
When the Qing government realized the harm being done by the opium trade, they decided to ban the use and import of opium.
The British refused to ban the trade and continued to sell opium to the Chinese, which prompted the Qing government to burn the British warehouses in Canton that contained stores of opium.
Britain and China then fought a war from 1839-1842 called the “Opium War”.
The British had advanced military technology that enabled them to defeat the Chinese relatively easily.
The Chinese were then forced to open their country up to trade with Europeans. They signed the Treaty of Nanking with the British in order to end the war. The treaty required that the Chinese open five new ports to British merchants, legalize the opium trade, give Hong Kong to Britain, and grant British subjects living in China extraterritoriality (which means that the British were not subject to Chinese laws while living in China).
China was then carved up into “spheres of influence” by European nations. Europeans didn’t govern China directly, but they controlled the economy and had a huge amount of political influence.
Discontent with foreign influence (and the problems it brought) led to the Taiping Rebellion. When the rebellion was finally put down, between 20 million and 30 million people had been killed. To this day, it is the bloodiest civil war in all of history.
J. CONSEQUENCES OF EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IN CHINA
Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures.
Introduced new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to China.
K. IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN
Like China, Japan was forced to deal with Western powers in the nineteenth century.
But, unlike China, Japan used Western industrial and military technology to become an important global power.
In the 19th century, the emperor of Japan was revered but had no real power; power resided with the shoguns (or military leaders). -
Regional lords (daimyo) controlled large parts of the country with little intervention from the Shogunate.
The Shogunate feared Western influence and in the 1600s had outlawed foreigners from entering Japan.
In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States arrived with his steamships off the coast of Japan. He met with the Japanese government and demanded that US vessels be allowed to enter Japanese ports to trade.
Looking to China’s defeat in the Opium War and fearing a similar fate, the Japanese government agreed to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa, which was similar to the unequal treaties signed by China.
Disappointed with that decision, some of the daimyo began plotting the overthrow of the shogun. This led to civil war.
When the civil war ended, the Tokugawa shogun was deposed (overthrown) and the Emperor Mutsuhito was declared restored. The new government was referred to as the Meiji Restoration, after the emperor’s reign name (he was called the Emperor Meiji).
Those who controlled the government in Japan then began a widespread program of modernization and industrialization.
Japan modernized to protect itself from Western powers; however, as it grew stronger, it too looked to become a colonial power.
L. IMPERIALISM IN LATIN AMERICA
Latin America had gained its independence from Spain in the early 1800s.
The natural resources of the Latin American republics made them targets for a form of economic imperialism called free-trade imperialism.
British and U.S. entrepreneurs financed and constructed railroads to exploit the agricultural and mineral wealth of Latin America. Latin American elites encouraged foreign companies with generous concessions because this appeared to be the fastest way to both modernize their countries and enrich the Latin American property-owning class.
Neither the United States nor the European powers attempted to conquer Latin America, but they did interfere in its economic affairs (for example, the U.S. often used military intervention to force smaller Latin American countries to repay their loans to banks in the U.S. or Europe.)
M. COMPARING IMPERIALIST MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA, ASIA (INCLUDING INDIA, CHINA AND JAPAN), AND LATIN AMERICA
-Europeans improved transportation and communication in all three regions (i.e. roads, canals, telegraphs, telephones).
-Trade increased (usually, raw materials were sent from the colonies back to their mother countries for manufacture).
-Improved medical care and education for some colonized peoples. -Europeans dominated nations politically, economically, and culturally. -Europeans exploited people and resources.
-China, Africa, and India were imperialized by European countries; Latin
America was imperialized economically by the United States.
-Japan resisted European/US domination by embracing modernization and becoming an industrialized world power.
N. COMPARING THE ROLES OF WOMEN BETWEEN 1750 AND 1914 CE
-Women’s main role was still wife and mother.
-Non-elite women were an important part of the workforce (i.e. factory work). -Elite women did not work outside of the home.
-Women fought or otherwise participated in revolutionary movements (though gained few rights from these revolutions).
-Some educational opportunity (especially for middle class/elite women, though some lower-class women got attend public schools in the US or Latin America—at least enough to learn how to read and write a little).
-Latin American and European women participated in suffrage movements (no movement for female suffrage in China, India, or Japan). Remember that “suffrage” refers to the right to vote.
-Elite women in China continued to be subjected to the practice of foot binding. (In India, the ritual of sati had been outlawed, first by the Mughals and then again by the British, but it did not completely die out.)
O. COMPARING INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EUROPE AND JAPAN
-Role of private entrepreneurs
-Led to mechanization and the rise of a factory system (i.e. textile factories)
-Laborers included women and children
-Contributed to an explosion in population and the advent of new technology
2. Major Differences:
-Europe’s industrial revolution began in the late 18th century (1700s); Japan began to industrialize in the mid-19 century as part of the Meiji Restoration -Japan’s industrialization was driven by the government as a response to imperialism; Western Europe’s industrial revolution was driven by private entrepreneurs (businessmen), because they could make more money by mechanizing industry.