1. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain (in other words, what were its causes)? Why didn’t it begin somewhere else?
Western Europe’s government policies As western Europe built political and economic empires in the New World, the flow of silver and gold from the New World into Europe’s treasuries made their societies the richest in the world. European governments—especially Britain—invested part of this income in the form of monetary prizes to individuals who invented more efficient ways to transport goods, grow crops, defeat enemies anything that might significantly contribute to the nation’s increased share of the global mercantilist pie. Geography; Incentives like government-sponsored prizes or useful inventions were factors that triggered the Industrial Revolution. Another factor was the right type of natural resources to create the inventions. Britain had coal and iron, good soil, fast-moving rivers to turn waterwheels that powered machines, and many natural harbors to import raw materials from far-away colonies. Products manufactured from those raw materials were exported back to millions of colonial consumers and other markets around the globe. Belgium, Germany, and France had similar favorable geographic conditions and were quick to follow Britain’s lead in developing industry. Economic and social mobility. Especially in Britain, and to a lesser degree in the rest of western Europe, people could move up the economic and social ladder if they developed a money-making invention. This incentive spurred Britain to become “a nation of tinkerers,” as one observer put it. Banks loaned money to inventors in whom they had faith. As noted above, European governments offered prizes for inventions that they considered helpful to their global economic and political goals. These conditions did not exist outside Europe at the beginning of this era. Britain had a large number of people skilled in working with metal tools. Those skills were necessary for the creation of the machines that would be used to develop industry.Many agricultural workers in Britain were forced farmland by a government-approved policy called the enclosure movement. The landless peasants migrated to cities, forming a large potential workforce for factories. Africa had a great deal more natural resources than did western Europe; Ming China had a well-organized government and a very strong economy; and India and China had a tradition of technological development. Only western Europe, however, had all the necessary factors for industrial development by the mid-eighteenth century: incentive, materials, and skilled-labor. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution.
2. What new innovations transformed industry in Great Britain after 1750 CE?
Spinning Jenny, Mule, Steam engine, chemicals, steel, chemistry, and the theory of evolution.
3. Discuss the spread of the Industrial Revolution to the United States, Japan, Prussia, Latin America, India, and other regions. Be thorough.
Using a show of industrial force; the US government sent ships to force open the trade door. The Japanese government responded not by resisting, but by transforming its government, society, and Industry. In their program of Western-Style industrialization the Japanese built factories that specialized in silk textiles. One significant difference between Japanese and Western industrialization was that the Japanese government had close ties to factory corporations. The government often built factories, then sold them to investors but stayed actively involved in their finances and business decisions. . Russia Unlike Japan and the ”West/’ Russia’s industrial progress was limited in this era. The government’s primary focus was on supporting the elite owners of large agricultural estates. Serfdom was still in place until the mid-nineteenth century. The government freed the serfs, but unlike the United States and Japan, Russia was slow to shift to industrialization.Late in this era, the Russian government sought foreign investment in its industrial program. Russia became a top producer of steel and built the Trans-Siberian Railway, passing the United States in having the world’s longest railroad. iv. Despite these accomplishments, Russia’s economy remained largely mired in the fifteenth century. Peasant laborers grew mostly wheat and potatoes for export from the large estates still owned by friends of the czar. Latin America Europeans invested great amounts of money to jump- start industrialization in Latin America. Great expectations followed and some railroad . They were built, but overall, like Russia, Latin America remained largely an exporter of crops grown by peasant labor. Products included coffee, bananas, wheat, beef, and sugar. Industrialized nations sought copper, a major = export of Mexico. England established its rule (rai) over India near the beginning of the era c. 1 750- 1900. India was a leading grower of cotton, and England eagerly imported the fabric for its textile mills. Toward the end of this era, under British authority, Indian textile, factories began to produce machine-made cotton thread and cloth, and the production of hand-made textiles began to decline. India’s age of rapid industrial growth, however, waited until the late twentieth century. 6. Industrialization in other regions Like the Russians, the Ottoman Empire had limited progress in developing modern industry in this era. The empire’s leaders failed to recognize the degree to which the Industrial Revolution was increasing the West’s political, economic, and military power. Unlike Japan’s leaders at this time, the Ottomans were divided over following western Europe’s industrial model. Africa remained a provider of natural resources to the world’s industrial giants. The greatest export in terms of cost was diamonds and gold from South Africa. In the Age of Imperialism, Europe’s governments and businesses preferred to keep its African colonies dependent on them. China rejected most things Western in this era and remained largely out of the production end of the Industrial Revolution. Some foreign investment provided for railroads and steamships, but overall the Middle Kingdom stuck with human labor to produce crops and hand-made items for export. The new industrial powers in western Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan took advantage of China’s weak government by forcing open exclusive trade regions—spheres of influence—in China. So Russia traded in one region of China, Britain in another, and France in yet another. At the end of this era, these nations accepted a U.S. proposal for an “open door policy” in China, ending the spheres of influence and allowing open access to all of China’s markets.
4. What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution on Western Europe, the United States, and Latin America?
In these “Western” regions, the rapid changes that industrialization had on the economy affected everyday life. England was the first to experience these changes. The factory system demanded a great deal of labor, so families moved from farms to cities to work in textile and other kinds of factories. Another factor in the move from farms to cities was the loss of farm jobs due to the increased use of labor-saving devices in agriculture. Over time, wages went up so much that working outside the home became primarily a “man’s job.” As factories became more efficient, less human labor was required, so, for the most part, women, and children left factory work to be employed in coal mines and in agricultural labor. As steady wages increased over time, a new social class arose in the industrial West: the middle class. This economic and social group between the rich and the poor had always existed, but in this era, it exploded in size and political power. Women were expected to marry and stay home to take care of their husbands and children, creating the traditional family structure in the West. Urban families had fewer children than their rural counterparts. Single women increasingly found employment as teachers, replacing men in these jobs. As the twentieth century approached, women began to replace men in the business environment as secretaries and telephone operators. Women were not allowed to vote in most Western societies until after World War I. Fewer children were needed for factory work, and governments in the West, concerned about the prospect of millions of unsupervised children running around with nothing to do, passed laws requiring school attendance. The Industrial Revolution caused more cities to develop and rise to unprecedented sizes. Seeking a steady income, people left farm life and moved to cities to work in industrial jobs. With the boom in urban population came overcrowded living conditions, high levels of pollution, higher crime rates, and a poor and increasingly discontent working class. Pressures from these conditions led to proposals for sweeping changes in government policies in Europe and the United States
5. What innovations were made in industry, communication, transportation, science, and medicine after 1870 CE (during the Second Industrial Revolution)? What impact did they have on European society?
The first major development in the area of communication was the U.S. invention of the telegraph in the 1840s. By the late 1850s, a telegraph cable had been extended under the Atlantic Ocean, from the British Isle, to Canada and the United States. Toward the end of the era, scientists were developing chemical compounds in the lab—some were powerful fertilizers that were used to grow crops (and thus more f food) more efficiently than before. Advances in medicine in this era included smallpox and rabies vaccinations, sterilization of surgical instruments, the use of anesthetics during surgery, and aspirin, to name a few. Governments oversaw programs that provided clean drinking water in cities. These and many other examples led to healthier, longer lives in the industrialized world. Science and faith crossed swords in the person of Charles Darwin.His investigations of animals of the South Pacific led him to conclude that natural selection, not God, determined the viability of species on Earth. He also theorized that humans and apes had similar characteristics and must therefore have common ancestors. These pronouncements began furious debates about the nature of humanity and its place among animals in the world. His ideas about survival of the fittest in the animal kingdoms led some Europeans to transfer the concept to human civilizations. Social Darwinism—wherein the superior races must naturally defeat inferior ones—had enormous implications in the upcoming Age of Imperialism.