AP World History
Test #11: Study Guide
PART I — Key Terms to Define
Directions: The following terms are ones you absolutely, positively have to know. Define each one on your own sheet of paper. Make sure your definitions are accurate and complete. Some definitions may come out to be a sentence long: others may consist of more than a sentence. Use the handout “Key Terms” given to you at the beginning of the year to define each term accurately. (20 pts. @ 5 pts. each)
Colonialism
Imperialism
Nationalism
Social Darwinism
PART II — Focus Questions
Directions: You must know the answer to each of the following questions. Write as much as you need to in order to answer each question thoroughly. However, be aware that many of these questions (perhaps all of them) must be answered in at least one paragraph. Use your test #11 outline to help you respond (60 pts. @ 6 pts. each)
Compare old imperialism (1500— 1750) with the New Imperialism (1870— 1914).
What were the motives behind the New Imperialism? How was technology a factor that encouraged European expansion after 1870?
Describe Europeans’ scramble for Africa. What were the consequences of the New Imperialism in Africa?
Discuss British imperialism in India after 1870. What were the consequences of British rule in India?
Discuss British imperialism in China. What were the consequences of European influence in China?
How was the Japanese response to imperialism different from the Chinese response?
Discuss British and American imperialism in Latin America between 1870 and 1914.
Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia (including India, China, and Japan), and Latin America.
Compare the roles of women in Europe, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE.
Compare industrialization in Europe and Japan.
PART III — Review Questions
Directions: You must know the answer to each of the following questions. Write as much as you need to in order to answer each question thoroughly. Use your test #11 outline and your class notes to help you respond .(20 pts. @ 3 pts. each)
What were the motives for the “New” Imperialism that lasted from 1870-1914?
What new technologies made the scramble for Africa and European conquest of Asia possible after 1870?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact Africa between 1870 and 1914?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact India between 1800 and 1914?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact China between 1800 and 1914?
How did the “New” Imperialism impact Japan between 1870 and 1914?
Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE.

Key Content Review:Test #11

OLD IMPERIALISM VS. THE NEW IMPERIALISM

A. OLD IMPERIALISM
European powers had practiced a form of imperialism between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this period, Portugal, the Dutch Republic, and England built trading-post empires along the coasts of Africa, India, and Indonesia.
The New World was a notable exception to this pattern. Spain established an enormous empire in Central and South America while England colonized the east coast of North America.

B. NEW IMPERIALISM
Beginning in 1870, European nations exercised increasing economic and political control over Africa and Asia. No longer content to trade with other peoples, European nations now aimed to directly rule vast regions of the world.
The imperialist powers seized control over some areas such as German East Africa and French Indo-China. In other areas, they established protectorates where the dependent country had its own government but was still subject to the authority of the imperial power. And finally, the great powers established spheres of influence over large parts of China.
THE NEW IMPERIALISM

A. MOTIVES FOR THE NEW IMPERIALISM
Industrialists searched for new sources of raw materials and new markets for their manufactured goods.
Militarists and nationalists sought power and prestige.
Social Darwinists believed that strong nations had a natural right to dominate weaker peoples. (They took the idea of “survival of the fittest” and began to apply it to peoples and nations. Naturally, Europeans felt that they were the most “fit” because of their vast wealth, technology, etc.)
Missionaries believed that Europeans had a duty to undertake a “civilizing mission” to bring Christianity and the blessings of advanced technology to less fortunate people.
*In short, the motives behind the New Imperialism after 1870 were similar to the motives behind European exploration after 1450 and can be summed up in three words: God, Glory, and Gold.
B. TECHNOLOGY AS A FACTOR THAT ENCOURAGED EUROPEAN EXPANSION AFTER 1870
The Industrial Revolution provided technological innovations that made the New Imperialism possible.
Steamships, the Suez Canal, and submarine cables gave European forces greater mobility and better communication than Africans, Asians, or Latin Americans. The discovery that quinine could be used to prevent malaria allowed Europeans to enter Africa in large numbers for the first time.

3. The invention of the breech-loading rifle, smokeless powder, and the machine gun gave Europeans made colonial conquests easier than ever before.
C. THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
The most aggressive example of the New Imperialism took place in Africa
New medicine, such as quinine, and
The so-called “Scramble for Africa” became so frenetic and rapacious that Otto von Bismark (the German chancellor) called for an international conference in Berlin. The 14 nations that attended the 1885 Berlin Conference established rules for dividing Africa.
Led by Great Britain, France, and Germany, the European powers successfully partitioned (divided) almost the entire continent of Africa. Only Liberia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) remained independent.
D. CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEW IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures
Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamship) and new medicine (such as quinine) to Africa
Intensified European rivalries
E. IMPERIALISM IN INDIA BEFORE 1850
As the Mughal Empire declined, the British made alliances with regional princes in order to strengthen their access to trade.
The British East India Company (EIC) established trading bases in port cities and hired Indian troops, known as Sepoys, to protect them.
As British influence in India increased, the British focused on creating a more powerful, efficient government in India.
British reforms in India included subduing the regional princes, establishing private land ownership (so that the government could more easily collect tax money), giving freer reign to Christian missionaries, and expanding agricultural production.
F. THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857
British economic influence benefited Indian elites and created some jobs, but it also led to greater oppression of the poor and the destruction of India’s cotton textile industry. (Before the arrival of the British, India had been the world’s leading exporter of hand-woven cotton cloth. However, India’s textile industry could not compete with the cheaper machine-made cotton textiles of British factories. Eventually, India grew cotton and exported it to Britain where it could be manufactured into cloth.)
There was increasing discontent with British rule.
Some of those discontented were the Sepoys. The Sepoys resented British efforts to have them go and fight overseas. They also were angered by British attempts to Christianize them (most of them were Hindu or Muslim) and by rumors that the bullet cartridges they were using in their rifles were being greased with pig and/or cow fat. (Remember that Muslims do not eat pork because they consider pigs to be unclean and Hindus do not eat beef because they consider cows to be sacred.)
The Sepoys rebelled in 1857.
The rebellion was eventually put down by the British and its leaders were executed, but it proved to be a turning point in the history of modern India.


G. CONSEQUENCES OF THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857
Britain ended the rule of the East India Company in India.
Queen Victoria declared that all Indians would be guaranteed equal protection of the law and the freedom to practice their religions and social customs.
A viceroy (governor) was appointed by the queen to oversee affairs in India.
The Indian National Congress (INC), which was made up of Indian nationalists, began to push for additional reforms in India (such as spending more governmental funds to help the poor) and ultimately hoped to achieve independence. However, independence for India would not come until after World War II, in 1947.
H. CONSEQUENCES OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA
Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures (including India’s textile industry).
Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to India.
I. IMPERIALISM IN CHINA
Europeans (especially the British) wanted to increase their trade with China. However, the Qing Dynasty only permitted Europeans access to one port city, Canton, in eastern China.
The British were buying lots of goods from China (i.e. silk, porcelain, and Tea), but they were not selling much of anything to the Chinese.
The British began to sell opium to the Chinese. Many Chinese became hooked on the drug.
When the Qing government realized the harm being done by the opium trade, they decided to ban the use and import of opium.
The British refused to ban the trade and continued to sell opium to the Chinese, which prompted the Qing government to burn the British warehouses in Canton that contained stores of opium.
Britain and China then fought a war from 1839-1842 called the “Opium War”.
The British had advanced military technology that enabled them to defeat the Chinese relatively easily.
The Chinese were then forced to open their country up to trade with Europeans. They signed the Treaty of Nanking with the British in order to end the war. The treaty required that the Chinese open five new ports to British merchants, legalize the opium trade, give Hong Kong to Britain, and grant British subjects living in China extraterritoriality (which means that the British were not subject to Chinese laws while living in China).
China was then carved up into “spheres of influence” by European nations. Europeans didn’t govern China directly, but they controlled the economy and had a huge amount of political influence.
Discontent with foreign influence (and the problems it brought) led to the Taiping Rebellion. When the rebellion was finally put down, between 20 million and 30 million people had been killed. To this day, it is the bloodiest civil war in all of history.
J. CONSEQUENCES OF EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IN CHINA
Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures.
Introduced new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to China.


K. IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN
Like China, Japan was forced to deal with Western powers in the nineteenth century.
But, unlike China, Japan used Western industrial and military technology to become an important global power.
In the 19th century, the emperor of Japan was revered but had no real power; power resided with the shoguns (or military leaders). -
Regional lords (daimyo) controlled large parts of the country with little intervention from the Shogunate.
The Shogunate feared Western influence and in the 1600s had outlawed foreigners from entering Japan.
In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States arrived with his steamships off the coast of Japan. He met with the Japanese government and demanded that US vessels be allowed to enter Japanese ports to trade.
Looking to China’s defeat in the Opium War and fearing a similar fate, the Japanese government agreed to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa, which was similar to the unequal treaties signed by China.
Disappointed with that decision, some of the daimyo began plotting the overthrow of the shogun. This led to civil war.
When the civil war ended, the Tokugawa shogun was deposed (overthrown) and the Emperor Mutsuhito was declared restored. The new government was referred to as the Meiji Restoration, after the emperor’s reign name (he was called the Emperor Meiji).
Those who controlled the government in Japan then began a widespread program of modernization and industrialization.
Japan modernized to protect itself from Western powers; however, as it grew stronger, it too looked to become a colonial power.
L. IMPERIALISM IN LATIN AMERICA
Latin America had gained its independence from Spain in the early 1800s.
The natural resources of the Latin American republics made them targets for a form of economic imperialism called free-trade imperialism.
British and U.S. entrepreneurs financed and constructed railroads to exploit the agricultural and mineral wealth of Latin America. Latin American elites encouraged foreign companies with generous concessions because this appeared to be the fastest way to both modernize their countries and enrich the Latin American property-owning class.
Neither the United States nor the European powers attempted to conquer Latin America, but they did interfere in its economic affairs (for example, the U.S. often used military intervention to force smaller Latin American countries to repay their loans to banks in the U.S. or Europe.)
M. COMPARING IMPERIALIST MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA, ASIA (INCLUDING INDIA, CHINA AND JAPAN), AND LATIN AMERICA
Major Similarities:
-Europeans improved transportation and communication in all three regions (i.e. roads, canals, telegraphs, telephones).
-Trade increased (usually, raw materials were sent from the colonies back to their mother countries for manufacture).
-Improved medical care and education for some colonized peoples. -Europeans dominated nations politically, economically, and culturally. -Europeans exploited people and resources.

Major Differences:
-China, Africa, and India were imperialized by European countries; Latin
America was imperialized economically by the United States.
-Japan resisted European/US domination by embracing modernization and becoming an industrialized world power.

N. COMPARING THE ROLES OF WOMEN BETWEEN 1750 AND 1914 CE

Major Similarities:
-Women’s main role was still wife and mother.
-Non-elite women were an important part of the workforce (i.e. factory work). -Elite women did not work outside of the home.
-Women fought or otherwise participated in revolutionary movements (though gained few rights from these revolutions).
-Some educational opportunity (especially for middle class/elite women, though some lower-class women got attend public schools in the US or Latin America—at least enough to learn how to read and write a little).
Major Differences:
-Latin American and European women participated in suffrage movements (no movement for female suffrage in China, India, or Japan). Remember that “suffrage” refers to the right to vote.
-Elite women in China continued to be subjected to the practice of foot binding. (In India, the ritual of sati had been outlawed, first by the Mughals and then again by the British, but it did not completely die out.)
O. COMPARING INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EUROPE AND JAPAN
Major Similarities:
-Role of private entrepreneurs
-Led to mechanization and the rise of a factory system (i.e. textile factories)
-Laborers included women and children
-Contributed to an explosion in population and the advent of new technology
2. Major Differences:
-Europe’s industrial revolution began in the late 18th century (1700s); Japan began to industrialize in the mid-19 century as part of the Meiji Restoration -Japan’s industrialization was driven by the government as a response to imperialism; Western Europe’s industrial revolution was driven by private entrepreneurs (businessmen), because they could make more money by mechanizing industry.

PART II ANSWERS

1. Compare old imperialism (1500 - 1750) with the New Imperialism (1870 - 1914).
European powers had practiced a form of imperialism between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this period, Portugal, the Dutch Republic and England built trading-post empires along the coasts of Africa, India, and Indonesia. The New World was a notable exception to this pattern. Spain established an enormous empire in Central and South America while England colonized the east coast of North America. Beginning in 1870, European nations exercised increasing economic and political control over Africa and Asia. No longer content to trade with other peoples, European nations now aimed to directly rule vast regions of the world. The imperialist powers seized control over some areas such as German East Africa and French Indo-China. In other areas, they established protectorates where the dependent country had its own government but was still subject to the authority of the imperial power. And finally, the great powers established spheres of influence over large parts of China.

2. What were the motives behind the New Imperialism? How was technology a factor that encouraged European expansion after 1870?
Industrialists searched for new sources of raw materials and new markets for their manufactured goods. Militarists and nationalists sought power and prestige. Social Darwinists believed that strong nations had a natural right to dominate weaker peoples. (They took the idea of “survival of the fittest” and began to apply it to peoples and nations. Naturally, Europeans felt that they were the most “fit” because of their vast wealth, technology, etc.) Missionaries believed that Europeans had a duty to undertake a “civilizing mission” to bring Christianity and the blessings of advanced technology to less fortunate people. In short, the motives behind the New Imperialism after 1870 were similar to the motives behind European exploration after 1450 and can be summed up in three words: God, Glory, and Gold.

3. Describe Europeans’ scramble for Africa. What were the consequences of the New Imperialism in Africa?
The most aggressive example of the New Imperialism took place in Africa .New medicine, such as quinine. The so-called “Scramble for Africa” became so frenetic and rapacious that Otto von Bismark (the German chancellor) called for an international conference in Berlin. The 14 nations that attended the 1885 Berlin Conference established rules for dividing Africa. Led by Great Britain, France, and Germany, the European powers successfully partitioned (divided) almost the entire continent of Africa. Only Liberia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) remained independent. Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamship) and new medicine (such as quinine) to Africa. Intensified European rivalries.

4. Discuss British imperialism in India after 1800. What were the consequences of British rule in India?
As the Mughal Empire declined, the British made alliances with regional princes in order to strengthen their access to trade. The British East India Company (EIC) established trading bases in port cities and hired Indian troops, known as Sepoys, to protect them. As British influence in India increased, the British focused on creating a more powerful, efficient government in India. British reforms in India included subduing the regional princes, establishing private land ownership (so that the government could more easily collect tax money), giving freer reign to Christian missionaries, and expanding agricultural production. British economic influence benefited Indian elites and created some jobs, but it also led to greater oppression of the poor and the destruction of India’s cotton textile industry. (Before the arrival of the British, India had been the world’s leading exporter of hand-woven cotton cloth. However, India’s textile industry could not compete with the cheaper machine-made cotton textiles of British factories. Eventually, India grew cotton and exported it to Britain where it could be manufactured into cloth.)  There was increasing discontent with British rule. Some of those discontented were the Sepoys. The Sepoys resented British efforts to have them go and fight overseas. They also were angered by British attempts to Christianize them (most of them were Hindu or Muslim) and by rumors that the bullet cartridges they were using in their rifles were greased with pig and/or cow fat. (Remember that Muslims do not eat pork because they consider pigs to be unclean and Hindus do not eat beef because they consider cows to be sacred.) The Sepoys rebelled in 1857. The rebellion was eventually put down by the British and its leaders were executed, but it proved to be a turning point in the history of modern India.  Britain ended the rule of the East India Company in India. Queen Victoria declared that all Indians would be guaranteed equal protection of the law and the freedom to practice their religions and social customs.A viceroy (governor) was appointed by the queen to oversee affairs in India. The Indian National Congress (INC), which was made up of Indian nationalists, began to push for additional reforms in India (such as spending more governmental funds to help the poor) and ultimately hoped to achieve independence. However, independence for India would not come until after World War II, in 1947.Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures (including India’s textile industry). Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to India

5. Discuss British imperialism in China. What were the consequences of European influence in China?
. Europeans (especially the British) wanted to increase their trade with China. However, the Qing Dynasty only permitted Europeans access to one port city, Canton, in eastern China. The British were buying lots of goods from China (i.e. silk, porcelain, and tea), but they were not selling much of anything to the Chinese. The British began to sell opium to the Chinese. Many Chinese became hooked on the drug. When the Qing government realized the harm being done by the opium trade, they decided to ban the use and import of opium. The British refused to ban the trade and continued to sell opium to the Chinese, which prompted the Qing government to burn the British warehouses in Canton that contained stores of opium.Britain and China then fought a war from 1839–1842 called the “Opium War”.The British had advanced military technology that enabled them to defeat the Chinese relatively easily.  The Chinese were then forced to open their country up to trade with Europeans. They signed the Treaty of Nanking with the British in order to end the war. The treaty required that the Chinese open five new ports to British merchants, legalize the opium trade, give Hong Kong to Britain, and grant British subjects living in China extraterritoriality (which means that the British were not subject to Chinese laws while living in China). China was then carved up into “spheres of influence” by European nations. Europeans didn’t govern China directly, but they controlled the economy and had a huge amount of political influence.  Discontent with foreign influence (and the problems it brought) led to the Taiping Rebellion. When the rebellion was finally put down, between 20 million and 30 million people had been killed. To this day, it is the bloodiest civil war in all of history. Native cultures were damaged and sometimes destroyed . Introduced new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to China.

6. How was the Japanese response to imperialism different from the Chinese response?
Like China, Japan was forced to deal with Western powers in the nineteenth century. But unlike China, Japan used Western industrial and military technology to become an important global power.

7. Discuss British and American imperialism in Latin America between 1870 and 1914.
Latin America had gained its independence from Spain in the early 1800s. The natural resources of the Latin American republics made them targets for a form of economic imperialism called free-trade imperialism. British and U.S. entrepreneurs financed and constructed railroads to exploit the agricultural and mineral wealth of Latin America. Latin American elites encouraged foreign companies with generous concessions because this appeared to be the fastest way to both modernize their countries and enrich the Latin American property-owning class. Neither the United States nor the European powers attempted to conquer Latin America, but they did interfere in its economic affairs (for example, the U.S. often used military intervention to force smaller Latin American countries to repay their loans to banks in the U.S. or Europe.)

8. Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia (including India, China, and Japan), and Latin America.
Major Similarities: -Europeans improved transportation and communication in all three regions (i.e. roads, canals, telegraphs, telephones). -Trade increased (usually, raw materials were sent from the colonies back to their mother countries for manufacture). -Improved medical care and education for some colonized peoples. -Europeans dominated nations politically, economically, and culturally. -Europeans exploited people and resources.
. Major Differences: -China, Africa, and India were imperialized by European countries; Latin America was imperialized economically by the United States. -Japan resisted European/US domination by embracing modernization and becoming an industrialized world power.

9. Compare the roles of women in Europe, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE.
Major Similarities: -Women’s main role was still wife and mother. -Non-elite women were an important part of the workforce (i.e. factory work). -Elite women did not work outside of the home. -Women fought or otherwise participated in revolutionary movements (though gained few rights from these revolutions). -Some educational opportunity (especially for middle class/elite women, though some lower-class women got attend public schools in the US or Latin America—at least enough to learn how to read and write a little). Major Differences: -Latin American and European women participated in suffrage movements (no movement for female suffrage in China, India, or Japan). Remember that “suffrage” refers to the right to vote. -Elite women in China continued to be subjected to the practice of footbinding. (In India, the ritual of sati had been outlawed, first by the Mughals and then again by the British, but it did not completely die out.)

10. Compare industrialization in Europe and Japan.
Major Similarities; Role of private entrepreneurs, led to mechanization and the rise of a factory system (i.e. textile factories), laborers included women and children, contributed to an explosion in population and the advent of new technology. Major Differences; Europe’s industrial revolution began in the late 18th century (1700s); Japan began to industrialize in the mid-19th century as part of the Meiji Restoration -Japan’s industrialization was driven by the government as a response to imperialism; Western Europe’s industrial revolution was driven by private entrepreneurs (businessmen), because they could make more money by mechanizing industry.

T11PRT3 QUESTIONS

1. What were the motives for the “New” Imperialism that lasted from 1870-1914? 2. What new technologies made the scramble for Africa and European conquest of Asia possible after 1870? 3. How did the “New” Imperialism impact Africa between 1870 and 1914? 4. How did the “New” Imperialism impact India between 1800 and 1914? 5. How did the “New” Imperialism impact China between 1800 and 1914? 6. How did the “New” Imperialism impact Japan between 1870 and 1914? 7. Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE.

T11PRT2 QUESTIONS

1. Compare old imperialism (1500 - 1750) with the New Imperialism (1870 - 1914). 2. What were the motives behind the New Imperialism? How was technology a factor that encouraged European expansion after 1870? 3. Describe Europeans’ scramble for Africa. What were the consequences of the New Imperialism in Africa? 4. Discuss British imperialism in India after 1800. What were the consequences of British rule in India? 5. Discuss British imperialism in China. What were the consequences of European influence in China? 6. How was the Japanese response to imperialism different from the Chinese response? 7. Discuss British and American imperialism in Latin America between 1870 and 1914. 8. Compare imperialist movements in Africa, Asia (including India, China, and Japan), and Latin America. 9. Compare the roles of women in Europe, Asia, and Latin America between 1870 and 1914 CE. 10. Compare industrialization in Europe and Japan.

T11P5

2. Major Differences: -China, Africa, and India were imperialized by European countries; Latin America was imperialized economically by the United States. -Japan resisted European/US domination by embracing modernization and becoming an industrialized world power. N. COMPARING THE ROLES OF WOMEN BETWEEN 1750 AND 1914 CE 1. Major Similarities: -Women’s main role was still wife and mother. -Non-elite women were an important part of the workforce (i.e. factory work). -Elite women did not work outside of the home. -Women fought or otherwise participated in revolutionary movements (though gained few rights from these revolutions). -Some educational opportunity (especially for middle class/elite women, though some lower-class women got attend public schools in the US or Latin America—at least enough to learn how to read and write a little). 2. Major Differences: -Latin American and European women participated in suffrage movements (no movement for female suffrage in China, India, or Japan). Remember that “suffrage” refers to the right to vote. -Elite women in China continued to be subjected to the practice of footbinding. (In India, the ritual of sati had been outlawed, first by the Mughals and then again by the British, but it did not completely die out.) O. COMPARING INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EUROPE AND JAPAN 1. Major Similarities: -Role of private entrepreneurs -Led to mechanization and the rise of a factory system (i.e. textile factories) -Laborers included women and children -Contributed to an explosion in population and the advent of new technology 2. Major Differences: -Europe’s industrial revolution began in the late 18th century (1700s); Japan began to industrialize in the mid-19th century as part of the Meiji Restoration -Japan’s industrialization was driven by the government as a response to imperialism; Western Europe’s industrial revolution was driven by private entrepreneurs (businessmen), because they could make more money by mechanizing industry.

T11P4

K. IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN 1. Like China, Japan was forced to deal with Western powers in the nineteenth centurv. . , 2. But unlike China, Japan used Western industrial and military technology to become an important global power. 3. In the 19th century, the emperor of Japan was revered but had no real power; power resided with the shoguns (or military leaders). 4. Regional lords (daimyo) controlled large parts of the country with little intervention from the shogunate. 5. The shogunate feared Western influence and in the 1600s had outlawed foreigners from entering Japan. 6. In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States arrived with his steamships off the coast of Japan. He met with the Japanese government and demanded that US vessels be allowed to enter Japanese ports to trade. 7. Looking to China’s defeat in the Opium War and fearing a similar fate, the Japanese government agreed to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa, which was similar to the unequal treaties signed by China. 8. Disappointed with that decision, some of the daimyo began plotting the overthrow of the shogun. This led to civil war. 9. When the civil war ended, the Tokugawa shogun was deposed (overthrown) and the Emperor Mutsuhito was declared restored. The new government was referred to as the Meiji Restoration, after the emperor’s reign name (he was called the Emperor Meiji). 10. Those who controlled the government in Japan then began a widespread program of modernization and industrialization. 11. Japan modernized to protect itself from Western powers; however, as it grew stronger, it too looked to become a colonial power. L. IMPERIALISM IN LATIN AMERICA 1. Latin America had gained its independence from Spain in the early 1800s. 2. The natural resources of the Latin American republics made them targets for a form of economic imperialism called free-trade imperialism. 3. British and U.S. entrepreneurs financed and constructed railroads to exploit the agricultural and mineral wealth of Latin America. Latin American elites encouraged foreign companies with generous concessions because this appeared to be the fastest way to both modernize their countries and enrich the Latin American property-owning class. 4. Neither the United States nor the European powers attempted to conquer Latin America, but they did interfere in its economic affairs (for example, the U.S. often used military intervention to force smaller Latin American countries to repay their loans to banks in the U.S. or Europe.) M. COMPARING IMPERIALIST MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA, ASIA (INCLUDING INDIA, CHINA AND JAPAN), AND LATIN AMERICA 1. Major Similarities: -Europeans improved transportation and communication in all three regions (i.e. roads, canals, telegraphs, telephones). -Trade increased (usually, raw materials were sent from the colonies back to their mother countries for manufacture). -Improved medical care and education for some colonized peoples. -Europeans dominated nations politically, economically, and culturally. -Europeans exploited people and resources.

T11P3

G. CONSEQUENCES OF THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857 1. Britain ended the rule of the East India Company in India. 2. Queen Victoria declared that all Indians would be guaranteed equal protection of the law and the freedom to practice their religions and social customs. 3. A viceroy (governor) was appointed by the queen to oversee affairs in India. 4. The Indian National Congress (INC), which was made up of Indian nationalists, began to push for additional reforms in India (such as spending more governmental funds to help the poor) and ultimately hoped to achieve independence. However, independence for India would not come until after World War II, in 1947. H. CONSEQUENCES OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA 1. Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures (including India’s textile industry). 2. Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) tc India. I. IMPERIALISM IN CHINA 1. Europeans (especially the British) wanted to increase their trade with China. However, the Qing Dynasty only permitted Europeans access to one port city, Canton, in eastern China. 2. The British were buying lots of goods from China (i.e. silk, porcelain, and tea), but they were not selling much of anything to the Chinese. 3. The British began to sell opium to the Chinese. Many Chinese became hooked on the drug. 4. When the Qing government realized the harm being done by the opium trade, they decided to ban the use and import of opium. 5. The British refused to ban the trade and continued to sell opium to the Chinese, which prompted the Qing government to burn the British warehouses in Canton that contained stores of opium. 6. Britain and China then fought a war from 1839-1842 called the “Opium War”. 7. The British had advanced military technology that enabled them to defeat the Chinese relatively easily. 8. The Chinese were then forced to open their country up to trade with Europeans. They signed the Treaty of Nanking with the British in order to end the war. The treaty required that the Chinese open five new ports to British merchants, legalize the opium trade, give Hong Kong to Britain, and grant British subjects living in China extraterritoriality (which means that the British were not subject to Chinese laws while living in China). 9. China was then carved up into “spheres of influence” by European nations. Europeans didn’t govern China directly, but they controlled the economy and had a huge amount of political influence. 10. Discontent with foreign influence (and the problems it brought) led to the Taiping Rebellion. When the rebellion was finally put down, between 20 million and 30 million people had been killed. To this day, it is the bloodiest civil war in all of history. CONSEQUENCES OF EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IN CHINA 1. Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures. 2. Introduced new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamships) to China.

T11P2

. The invention of the breech-loading rifle, smokeless powder, and the machine gun gave Europeans made colonial conquests easier than ever betore. C. THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 1. The most aggressive example of the New Imperialism took place in Africa 2. New medicine, such as quinine, and Q„;rt„e ty,at 3. The so-called “Scramble for Africa” became so frenetic and rapaciothat Otto von Bismark (the German chancellor) called for an nteraational conference in Berlin. The 14 nations that attended the 1885 Berlin Conference established rules for dividing Africa. nnwtn~ 4. Led bv Great Britain, France, and Germany, the European powers successfully partitioned (divided) almost the entire continent of Africa. Only Liberia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) remained independent. D. CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEW IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA 1 Damaged and sometimes destroyed native cultures 2. Brought new technologies (such as the railroad, telegraph, and steamship) and new medicine (such as quinine) to Africa 3. Intensified European rivalries E. IMPERIALISM IN INDIA BEFORE 1850 1. As the Mughal Empire declined, the British made alliances with regional princes in order to strengthen their access to trade. 2. The British East India Company (EIC) established trading bases in port cities and hired Indian troops, known as Sepoys, to protect them. 3. As British influence in India increased, the British focused on creating a more powerful, efficient government in India. 4. British reforms in India included subduing the regional princes, establishing private land ownership (so that the government could more easily collect tax money), giving freer reign to Christian missionaries, and expanding agricultural production. THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857 1. British economic influence benefited Indian elites and created some jobs, but it also led to greater oppression of the poor and the destruction of India’s cotton textile industry. (Before the arrival of the British, India had been the world’s leading exporter of hand-woven cotton cloth. However, India’s textile industry could not compete with the cheaper machine-made cotton textiles of British factories. Eventually, India grew cotton and exported it to Britain where it could be manufactured into cloth.) 2. There was increasing discontent with British rule. 3. Some of those discontented were the Sepoys. The Sepoys resented British efforts to have them go and fight overseas. They also were angered by British attempts to Christianize them (most of them were Hindu or Muslim) and by rumors that the bullet cartridges they were using in their rifles were beina greased with pig and/or cow fat. (Remember that Muslims do not eat pork because they consider pigs to be unclean and Hindus do not eat beef because they consider cows to be sacred.) 4. The Sepoys rebelled in 1857. 5. The rebellion was eventually put down by the British and its leaders were executed, but it proved to be a turning point in the history of modern India.

Page one test #11

A. OLD IMPERIALISM 1. European powers had practiced a form of imperialism between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this period, Portugal, the Dutch Republic and England built trading-post empires along the coasts of Africa, India, and Indonesia. 2. The New World was a notable exception to this pattern. Spain established an enormous empire in Central and South America while England colonized the east coast of North America. B. NEW IMPERIALISM 1. Beginning in 1870, European nations exercised increasing economic and political control over Africa and Asia. No longer content to trade with other peoples, European nations now aimed to directly rule vast regions of the world. 2. The imperialist powers seized control over some areas such as German East Africa and French Indo-China. In other areas, they established protectorates where the dependent country had its own government but was still subject to the authority of the imperial power. And finally, the great powers established spheres of influence over large parts of China. THE NEW IMPERIALISM A. MOTIVES FOR THE NEW IMPERIALISM 1. Industrialists searched for new sources of raw materials and new markets for their manufactured goods. 2. Militarists and nationalists sought power and prestige. 3. Social Darwinists believed that strong nations had a natural right to dominate weaker peoples. (They took the idea of “survival of the fittest” and began to apply it to peoples and nations. Naturally, Europeans felt that they were the most “fit” because of their vast wealth, technology, etc.) 4. Missionaries believed that Europeans had a duty to undertake a “civilizing mission” to bring Christianity and the blessings of advanced technology to less fortunate people. *In short, the motives behind the New Imperialism after 1870 were similar to the motives behind European exploration after 1450 and can be summed up in three words: God, Glory, and Gold. B. TECHNOLOGY AS A FACTOR THAT ENCOURAGED EUROPEAN EXPANSION AFTER 1870 1. The Industrial Revolution provided technological innovations that made the New Imperialism possible. 2. Steamships, the Suez Canal, and submarine cables gave European forces greater mobility and better communication than Africans, Asians, or Latin Americans. The discovery that quinine could be used to prevent malaria allowed Europeans to enter Africa in large numbers for the first time.

1. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain (in other words, what were its causes)? Why didn’t it begin somewhere else?

Western Europe’s government policies As western Europe built political and economic empires in the New World, the flow of silver and gold from the New World into Europe’s treasuries made their societies the richest in the world. European governments—especially Britain—invested part of this income in the form of monetary prizes to individuals who invented more efficient ways to transport goods, grow crops, defeat enemies anything that might significantly contribute to the nation’s increased share of the global mercantilist pie. Geography; Incentives like government-sponsored prizes or useful inventions were factors that triggered the Industrial Revolution. Another factor was the right type of natural resources to create the inventions. Britain had coal and iron, good soil, fast-moving rivers to turn waterwheels that powered machines, and many natural harbors to import raw materials from far-away colonies.  Products manufactured from those raw materials were exported back to millions of colonial consumers and other markets around the globe. Belgium, Germany, and France had similar favorable geographic conditions and were quick to follow Britain’s lead in developing industry. Economic and social mobility. Especially in Britain, and to a lesser degree in the rest of western Europe, people could move up the economic and social ladder if they developed a money-making invention. This incentive spurred Britain to become “a nation of tinkerers,” as one observer put it. Banks loaned money to inventors in whom they had faith. As noted above, European governments offered prizes for inventions that they considered helpful to their global economic and political goals. These conditions did not exist outside Europe at the beginning of this era. Britain had a large number of people skilled in working with metal tools. Those skills were necessary for the creation of the machines that would be used to develop industry.Many agricultural workers in Britain were forced farmland by a government-approved policy called the enclosure movement. The landless peasants migrated to cities, forming a large potential workforce for factories. Africa had a great deal more natural resources than did western Europe; Ming China had a well-organized government and a very strong economy; and India and China had a tradition of technological development. Only western Europe, however, had all the necessary factors for industrial development by the mid-eighteenth century: incentive, materials, and skilled-labor. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution.

2. What new innovations transformed industry in Great Britain after 1750 CE?

Spinning Jenny, Mule, Steam engine, chemicals, steel, chemistry, and the theory of evolution. 

3. Discuss the spread of the Industrial Revolution to the United States, Japan, Prussia, Latin America, India, and other regions. Be thorough.

 Using a show of industrial force; the US government sent ships to force open the trade door. The Japanese government responded not by resisting, but by transforming its government, society, and Industry. In their program of Western-Style industrialization the Japanese built factories that specialized in silk textiles. One significant difference between Japanese and Western industrialization was that the Japanese government had close ties to factory corporations. The government often built factories, then sold them to investors but stayed actively involved in their finances and business decisions. . Russia Unlike Japan and the ”West/’ Russia’s industrial progress was limited in this era. The government’s primary focus was on supporting the elite owners of large agricultural estates. Serfdom was still in place until the mid-nineteenth century. The government freed the serfs, but unlike the United States and Japan, Russia was slow to shift to industrialization.Late in this era, the Russian government sought foreign investment in its industrial program. Russia became a top producer of steel and built the Trans-Siberian Railway, passing the United States in having the world’s longest railroad. iv. Despite these accomplishments, Russia’s economy remained largely mired in the fifteenth century. Peasant laborers grew mostly wheat and potatoes for export from the large estates still owned by friends of the czar. Latin America Europeans invested great amounts of money to jump- start industrialization in Latin America. Great expectations followed and some railroad . They were built, but overall, like Russia, Latin America remained largely an exporter of crops grown by peasant labor. Products included coffee, bananas, wheat, beef, and sugar. Industrialized nations sought copper, a major = export of Mexico. England established its rule (rai) over India near the beginning of the era c. 1 750- 1900. India was a leading grower of cotton, and England eagerly imported the fabric for its textile mills. Toward the end of this era, under British authority, Indian textile, factories began to produce machine-made cotton thread and cloth, and the production of hand-made textiles began to decline. India’s age of rapid industrial growth, however, waited until the late twentieth century. 6. Industrialization in other regions Like the Russians, the Ottoman Empire had limited progress in developing modern industry in this era. The empire’s leaders failed to recognize the degree to which the Industrial Revolution was increasing the West’s political, economic, and military power. Unlike Japan’s leaders at this time, the Ottomans were divided over following western Europe’s industrial model.  Africa remained a provider of natural resources to the world’s industrial giants. The greatest export in terms of cost was diamonds and gold from South Africa. In the Age of Imperialism, Europe’s governments and businesses preferred to keep its African colonies dependent on them.  China rejected most things Western in this era and remained largely out of the production end of the Industrial Revolution. Some foreign investment provided for railroads and steamships, but overall the Middle Kingdom stuck with human labor to produce crops and hand-made items for export. The new industrial powers in western Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan took advantage of China’s weak government by forcing open exclusive trade regions—spheres of influence—in China. So Russia traded in one region of China, Britain in another, and France in yet another. At the end of this era, these nations accepted a U.S. proposal for an “open door policy” in China, ending the spheres of influence and allowing open access to all of China’s markets.

4. What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution on Western Europe, the United States, and Latin America?

In these “Western” regions, the rapid changes that industrialization had on the economy affected everyday life. England was the first to experience these changes. The factory system demanded a great deal of labor, so families moved from farms to cities to work in textile and other kinds of factories. Another factor in the move from farms to cities was the loss of farm jobs due to the increased use of labor-saving devices in agriculture. Over time, wages went up so much that working outside the home became primarily a “man’s job.”  As factories became more efficient, less human labor was required, so, for the most part, women, and children left factory work to be employed in coal mines and in agricultural labor. As steady wages increased over time, a new social class arose in the industrial West: the middle class. This economic and social group between the rich and the poor had always existed, but in this era, it exploded in size and political power. Women were expected to marry and stay home to take care of their husbands and children, creating the traditional family structure in the West. Urban families had fewer children than their rural counterparts. Single women increasingly found employment as teachers, replacing men in these jobs. As the twentieth century approached, women began to replace men in the business environment as secretaries and telephone operators.  Women were not allowed to vote in most Western societies until after World War I.  Fewer children were needed for factory work, and governments in the West, concerned about the prospect of millions of unsupervised children running around with nothing to do, passed laws requiring school attendance. The Industrial Revolution caused more cities to develop and rise to unprecedented sizes. Seeking a steady income, people left farm life and moved to cities to work in industrial jobs. With the boom in urban population came overcrowded living conditions, high levels of pollution, higher crime rates, and a poor and increasingly discontent working class.  Pressures from these conditions led to proposals for sweeping changes in government policies in Europe and the United States

5. What innovations were made in industry, communication, transportation, science, and medicine after 1870 CE (during the Second Industrial Revolution)? What impact did they have on European society?

 The first major development in the area of communication was the U.S. invention of the telegraph in the 1840s. By the late 1850s, a telegraph cable had been extended under the Atlantic Ocean, from the British Isle, to Canada and the United States. Toward the end of the era, scientists were developing chemical compounds in the lab—some were powerful fertilizers that were used to grow crops (and thus more f food) more efficiently than before. Advances in medicine in this era included smallpox and rabies vaccinations, sterilization of surgical instruments, the use of anesthetics during surgery, and aspirin, to name a few. Governments oversaw programs that provided clean drinking water in cities. These and many other examples led to healthier, longer lives in the industrialized world. Science and faith crossed swords in the person of Charles Darwin.His investigations of animals of the South Pacific led him to conclude that natural selection, not God, determined the viability of species on Earth. He also theorized that humans and apes had similar characteristics and must therefore have common ancestors. These pronouncements began furious debates about the nature of humanity and its place among animals in the world. His ideas about survival of the fittest in the animal kingdoms led some Europeans to transfer the concept to human civilizations. Social Darwinism—wherein the superior races must naturally defeat inferior ones—had enormous implications in the upcoming Age of Imperialism.